Beitrag (Sammelband oder Tagungsband)
Cutting high-performance materials with ultrasonically modulated cutting speed
The continuing trend towards lightweight construction and the associated machining rates of up to 95 % lead to an
increased use of high-performance materials. The ever growing demands on the strength and quality of components and
the associated use of materials which are hard to machine require the further development of new, economical machining
techniques. In ultrasonic-assisted machining, an additional high-frequency vibration is superimposed on the conventional
machining process. The vibration of the tool is usually excited axially or longitudinally to the workpiece, i.e. vertical to
the cutting direction. An additional vibration overlay around the rotation axis (torsional) of the tool is also possible. This
generates a vibration overlay in the cutting direction. The vibration initiation causes vibration amplitudes in the range of a
few micrometers at the tool cutting edge. This leads in turn to a high-frequency change in the cutting speed or feed rate.
Overall, an additional torsional vibration overlap can further reduce cutting forces, increase tool life and improve
In order for a grinding tool to generate a torsional vibration, a special tool was required that had to be designed by
simulation. The formation of a torsional vibration was achieved by helical slots in the sonotrode. Depending on the angle
of rotation and the length of the slots, a part of the axial vibration is converted into a torsional vibration by an axial
excitation of the sonotrode. The aim in designing the slots was to achieve the highest possible vibration amplitude.
Following the simulation, the slots were inserted into the tool in the corresponding optimum geometric position.
Afterwards, the specially designed grinding tool was validated by machining the brittle-hard glass-ceramic material
Zerodur. The first test results with the torsionally vibrating tool are presented in the following.
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